James Abbott McNeill Whistler (1834-1903) was American born but moved to Russia with his family in childhood, where he was trained at the Imperial Academy of Fine Arts from the age of eleven. After a brief period studying in Britain his family moved back to the U.S. and he went with them. Although he chose to attend the military academy West Point he was rebellious and far from suitable, and after leaving took up work as a surveyor, mapping parts of the country. Again, he was ill suited to the task and decided that art was his true calling, moving to Paris, France, in 1855 to resume his artistic studies. In the late 1850s he chose to live in Britain but returned frequently to France.
If you want to find out more about Whistler's career, there's a good precis on Wikipedia, sourced mainly but not entirely from the book James McNeill Whistler: Beyond the Myth by Ronald Anderson and Anne Koval.